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Evaporative | Absorption | Thermo-Electric | Vortex
Energy Efficient Cooling, for home and auto
Cooling systems powered by mechanical compressors are not the most efficient way of staying cool, evaporative and absorption cooling systems make more sense, in some circumstances.
Cool Your Home Naturally
Keeping cool indoors when it is hot outdoors is a problem. The sun beating down on your home causes indoor temperatures to rise to uncomfortable levels. Air conditioning provides some relief. But the initial costs of installing an air conditioner and the electricity costs to run it can be high. In addition, conventional air conditioners use refrigerants made of chlorine compounds, suspected contributors to the depletion of the ozone layer and global warming. But there are alternatives to air conditioning. This article provides some common sense suggestions and low-cost retrofit options to help you "keep your cool" and save electricity. http://www.doityourself.com/energy/coolnaturally.htm
The California Energy Commission sponsored the development of SMARTCOOL with the goal of producing a superior, energy efficient air conditioner system for home or business. SMARTCOOL, a technological breakthrough, evolved from the old fashioned evaporative cooler. The key to SMARTCOOL is a unique heat exchanger which, combined with a patented single pump/blower configuration, results in ideal indoor humidity, smaller size, superior energy efficiency and lower installed cost. http://www.smartcool.net
Build your own - http://www.fridge.lionheart.net/descript.htm
Cooling Unit (How it works)
The graphic below represents a cooling unit in full operation. There's a lot to cover here, so you might consider printing this page and going to the bigger graphic to follow along. The graphic may seem a little confusing at first, because quite a few things are happening at once. But, when broken down to a section at a time, it is a fairly simple system. http://www.rvmobile.com/tech/Trouble/cooldoc.htm
Heat Transfer Additives for Absorption Cooling System Fluids - To develop an analytical and physical understanding of the various phenomena that could affect the heat and mass transfer in the absorber of an absorption chiller, a comprehensive property data base was compiled and exploratory experiments were conducted, with emphasis on methods associated with heat and mass transfer in a falling film absorber. The accomplishments included surface tension measurements for aqueous lithium bromide (LiBr) with and without additives, air solubility measurements for LiBr and lithium chloride, stability observations for a static film absorber, and preliminary tests with the falling film absorber apparatus for 60 weight/percent LiBr without surfactant additive. The conclusion is that surfactant concentrations equal or less than needed for lowering the surface tension to that of pure water are necessary to cause instability when mass transfer takes place. Mass transfer correlations were developed for an aqueous LiBr falling film absorber with no additives, which can be used as a reference for experimental results with additives.
Robur Corporation is a world leader in the manufacturing of environmentally sensitive Gas Fired Absorption Cooling Equipment. The SERVEL line of Chillers utilizes clean burning gas (natural or propane) as its primary energy source to produce chilled water for comfort or industrial process cooling applications. Minimal single phase electrical power is only required to operate condenser fan, pumps and controls. These environmentally friendly cooling systems contain no ozone damaging CFC or HCFC refrigerants. http://www.robur.com/index2.html
Co-generation and Waste Heat Utilization;
PlusICE Systems can be very valuable when used with a co-generation plant or industrial waste heat applications.
If the co-generator system requires a stable thermal storage load during the night periods in order to obtain attractive pay-back periods, or if the industrial process system is continuous and generates waste heat such as steam over night to satisfy the main steam circuit, then an absorption chiller and PlusICE Thermal Energy Storage (TES) combination can be utilised at night as well as off-peak periods and the stored energy can supplement the next day peak loads.
Since the most commonly used Li-Br or NH3-water absorption chiller plants are rated to produce 5.5ºC (42ºF) chilled water, there is a natural match with charging temperature recommended for the PlusICE TES System.
New Horizons for Designers;
A positive temperature Eutectic TES approach can certainly permit the downsizing of the absorption chiller. It may also allow downsizing the entire co-generation package, making the entire project more cost effective.
Furthermore, if the system is designed for partial storage, the existing co-generation/waste heat drive absorption chiller can be operated during the peak electricity period for further energy savings and attractive payback periods.
Click on image to enlarge schematic
Absorption cooling is a relatively quiet, vibration-free means of producing effective refrigeration. Absorption units operate on the simple principle that under low absolute pressure, water will boil at a low temperature. The two-shell cooling units use heat to produce refrigeration efficiently. The lower shell contains an absorber and evaporator, while the upper shell consists of generator and condenser sections. The heat recuperator, in combination with the absorption cooling machine, has been in regular operation since June 1998. http://www.caddet-ee.org/nl_html/991_08.htm
Non electric refrigeration is done using absorption cooling units invented in the early 1920s. Instead of electricity, heat from gas or kerosene flames is used to drive the units. The use of other heat sources such as solar energy are in development. The technology is used for small hotel minibars up to gas powered air conditioning plants for large buildings. Entex Energy Ltd. is specialized in the technology for absorption type refrigerators and food/vaccine storage containers. http://www.entex-energy.ch/
Vortex Tubes for spot cooling, Cooling with Compressed Air.